Sunday, September 1, 2013

1 Corinthians Chapter 8

1 Corinthians 8:1

Counsel concerning Christian liberty
Paul’s reply to the Corinthians’ question concerning the propriety of eating the meat of an animal offered in a pagan sacrifice touched off an extensive response, probably because he sensed that this particular issue was another manifestation of the Corinthians’ self-centeredness, which produced other similar problems in the church.
Two words which seemed to epitomize the Corinthians’ point of view were “freedom” (eleutheros, 1Co_9:1, 1Co_9:19; eleutheria, 1Co_10:29) and “rights” (exousia, 1Co_8:9; 1Co_9:4-6, 1Co_9:12, 1Co_9:18). Paul used and qualified these words in these chapters by stressing the importance of a love for others which sought their “good” (sympherōos, 1Co_10:24, 1Co_10:33; 1Co_12:7; cf. 1Co_6:12) by “strengthening” or “building” them up (oikodomeōia, 1Co_8:1, 1Co_8:10; 1Co_10:23; 1Co_14:3-5, 1Co_14:12, 1Co_14:17, 1Co_14:26). These two themes, “me first” or “you first,” and Paul’s development of them as they affected believers in relation to pagan worship and Christian worship, unified these chapters. Secondarily Paul showed that the former attitude ultimately brought God’s disapproval (adokimos, 1Co_9:27) and His discipline (1Co_10:5-10; 1Co_11:30-32).
Christian Liberty In Relation To Pagan Worship
Ordinarily the Greeks and Romans burned the less desirable portions of an animal in the course of their sacrifices and retained the choicer parts for personal consumption at banquets celebrating the sacrifices. If a sacrifice were made in connection with a state function, the meat which remained was frequently sold in the marketplace. The Corinthians’ questions apparently concerned (a) the acceptability of buying and eating meat from one of these sacrificial animals; (b) the acceptability of eating this meat as an invited guest in a friend’s home; (c) the acceptability of attending one of these pagan sacrifices and enjoying the meal of celebration which followed in the temple precincts. Paul spoke to each of these issues.
The principle of brotherly love
Paul struck right to the heart of the matter in these preliminary verses by stating a basic principle: love is superior to knowledge (cf. 1Co_13:1-13).
Much as he had begun his reply on marital questions, Paul may have quoted a Corinthian sentiment (we all possess knowledge) with which he basically agreed but which required qualification. Knowledge was essential in correctly responding to their questions but those who thought they had it did not, as Paul would show.
It seems that in each one of these chapters in Corinthians that Paul is answering questions they have written and asked him about. We remember that "idols" mean nothings. Paul is possibly saying, I know that you all know not to worship idols. It seems that the person who had written Paul was puffed up with pride, and Paul is about to show him the error in being puffed up with pride about the little knowledge he had. Love, or charity, builds a person up. Pride destroys.
The Greeks and Romans were polytheistic (worshipping many gods) and polydemonistic (believing in many evil spirits). They believed that evil spirits would try to invade human beings by attaching themselves to food before it was eaten, and that the spirits could be removed only by the food’s being sacrificed to a god. The sacrifice was meant not only to gain favor with the god, but also to cleanse the meat from demonic contamination. Such decontaminated meat was offered to the gods as a sacrifice. That which was not burned on the altar was served at wicked pagan feasts. What was left was sold in the market.
After conversion, believers resented eating such food bought out of idol markets, because it reminded sensitive Gentile believers of the previous pagan lives and the demonic worship.
“We all have knowledge”: Paul and mature believers knew better than to be bothered by such food offered once to idols and then sold in the marketplace. They knew the deities did not exist and that evil spirits did not contaminate the food.
“Charity (love) edifies”: Knowledge mingled with love prevents a believer from exercising freedoms that offend weaker believers and, rather, builds the others up in truth and wisdom.
1 Corinthians 8:2-3

In the first place, knowledge about God was always partial (1Co_13:12). In the second place, true knowledge led to God and a love for Him which Paul knew must issue in love for others (cf. 1Jn_4:20-21). The minute a person gets to the stage that he thinks he knows everything, he has stopped learning and probably does not know near as much as he thought he did. A little knowledge is a very dangerous thing. I believe a technical knowledge of the Bible, without benefit of the spiritual meaning, is dangerous, as well. When you find a humble person still eager to learn more, you find a knowledgeable person. You can know what a Scripture says, without knowing what it means. To understand what it means must be revealed to you by the Holy Spirit. To know God exists is one thing, but to have Him as your personal Savior is something else entirely. To know of God is one thing, but to love God in your heart is an entirely different thing, as well. Love is the proof of knowing God.
John 10:14 "I am the good shepherd, and know my [sheep], and am known of mine." He knows us and we know Him, if we love Him.
Galatians 4:9 "But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage?"

1 Corinthians 8:4

With the principle stated it now remained to be applied to the particular instance in question. The statements which follow the two that’s (an idol is nothing at all and there is no God but One) may well have been Corinthian affirmations with which Paul could wholeheartedly agree. An “idol” indeed was “nothing” (Psa_115:4-8), for there is only one God (Deu_4:35, Deu_4:39). Hence eating food sacrificed to idols was, in itself, inconsequential. Christians should believe that idols are nothings. The sin involving idols is to elevate them up and worship them. Christians should believe in God and God alone. Any form of worshipping idols is totally unacceptable. There would be absolutely no way to know what meat had been offered to idols and what was not. To regard the meat clean or unclean would be regarding the idol. They should not try to judge at all. Just ignore all of that, since an idol is a nothing anyway.
Paul states his agreement with the well taught believers who knew idols were nothing, so food offered to idols was not defiled.
We must remember through all of this that Paul is answering questions someone in Corinth had written to him. God had shown over and over that idols are nothings, as He did in Egypt; to make the Pharaoh let the people go.
1 Corinthians 8:5-6

The pantheon of the Greeks and Romans, not to mention the gods and lords of the mystery religions were indeed numerous, but one God alone is real (Deu_10:17). The Father is the source of all (Gen_1:1) and the One for whom the Corinthians should live (1Co_10:31). In Egypt there had been thousands of false gods. Here in Corinth, there had been many false gods, as well. The problem with people who worship false gods is that they want a god they can see with their eyes. They worship things from God's creation instead of worshipping the Creator. God is the Eternal Spirit.
John 4:24 "God [is] a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship [him] in spirit and in truth." The One true God is Spirit, and must be seen in the Spirit and not with physical eyes.
The Lord Jesus Christ was the agent of Creation (Col_1:16) and the One through whom the Corinthians lived (1Co_12:27; Eph_1:23). A powerful and clear affirmation of the essential equality of God the Father and God the Son. (Eph. 4:4-6)
Here is the Scripture which explains it best.
I John 5:7 "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one."
The Lord Jesus Christ is the same as the Word mentioned here in 1 John. Eternal God is the beginning of all. Our Salvation is by believing in Lord Jesus Christ. The Word was Creator God. All things exist by Him. He bought us with His precious blood, and we are now adopted children of the Father. There is no other way to the Father, but by Jesus Christ.
1 Corinthians 8:7-8

If all Corinthian Christians could have agreed that an idol was nothing and that there was only one God (1Co_8:4), then they might have eaten the idol meat with impunity. However, such was not the case. All, in fact, did not possess knowledge. The conscience of some Christians was not strengthened on this point by the truth. This is just speaking of those who know the meat was offered to an idol, feel that they should not eat it, and eat it anyway. That would be a sin, because they went against their conscience. Those who regard the idol as nothing would not sin, if they ate of the same meat, because they do not regard the idol as anything. They could eat it with a clear conscience.
They were still ignorant and had not come to the point where they could accept eating this kind of meat as a matter of indifference. For them it was wrong, and so to eat it was sin (cf. Rom_14:23). The meat is not what makes the sin. It is our attitude toward the meat. Anything that you cannot do with a clear conscience is sin if you do it.
If you are a Christian, God has placed His laws in your heart. Your conscience alerts you when something is a sin or not. We must never do anything that we feel in our heart is wrong to do. The eating is not the sin. The sin is doing what you know or feel in your heart is wrong for you.
Paul denied the validity of their scruples, but in the advice which followed he suggested that the solution would be found in love, not in knowledge.
1 Corinthians 8:9

When knowledge uninformed by love dictated one’s behavior, Paul warned that spiritual harm would result. The exercise of… freedom by the knowledgeable could in certain circumstances become an obstacle, a stumbling block in the weak Christian’s walk with God (cf. 1Co_8:13). We must make a judgment call here. If we do something that we know in our heart is not wrong for us to do, but would cause our brother to sin, it is wrong for us to do. It is wrong, because we would cause our brother who has a weak conscience to sin. All Christians should be aware of their brother's weakness, and not do things in front of him that would cause him to sin. It is even more important that ministers are careful what they say and do. Sometimes the only example of Christian living that a person has is the one we live before them.

1 Corinthians 8:10

As an illustration Paul posed a situation in which a weak Christian saw a knowledgeable brother enjoying a meal in an idol’s temple and was by this example encouraged to join in, even though he could not do so with the clear conscience before God that the knowledgeable Christian enjoyed. This is speaking of someone who has no guilty conscience about eating things offered to idols, because he does not regard the idol as anything. The sad thing is that the person who does have a guilty conscience about eating the sacrifice offered to the idol might eat to show that they can do anything you are doing. Remember, you are their example, and they would sin because of your freedom in the Lord. It is just best to be careful of this for their sakes and not for your own sake.
1 Corinthians 8:11

As a consequence the conscience of this weak believer was seared (cf. 1Ti_4:2), and his capacity to distinguish right from wrong was lost (cf. Tit_1:15) leading to his spiritual ruin and physical death (cf. 1Co_10:9-10; Rom_14:15). Apollytai, rendered is destroyed, often refers to physical death (e.g., Mat_2:13; Act_5:37). We see in the following Scripture, it is not always what we do that is sin, but our attitude about what we do that is sin. Anything you do without having faith in your heart that it is alright to do, is sin. Look with me at that very thing in the following Scripture.
Romans 14:23 "And he that doubteth is damned if he eats, because [he eateth] not of faith: for whatsoever [is] not of faith is sin."
The sad thing is that we have great influence on those who have just received Jesus as their Savior. We must not give even the appearance of evil for their sakes. The new Christian is not aware of the privilege of Christianity and thus you might cause him to sin.
The selflessness of Christ was an example for the knowledgeable. If Christ loved this brother so that he was willing to give up His exalted rights and even His life (Php_2:6, Php_2:8), surely the strong could give up his right to eat such meat.
1 Corinthians 8:12

To be arrogantly indifferent to the need of weaker Christians results in sin not only against them (for you… wound their weak conscience; cf. 1Co_8:7) but also against Christ of whose body they are members (1Co_12:26-27; cf. 1Co_1:30; Mat_25:40, Mat_25:45). A strong warning that causing a brother or sister in Christ to stumble is more than simply an offense against that person; it is a serious offense against the Lord Himself. Paul experienced this point acutely on the Damascus Road (Act_9:4-5).
1 Corinthians 8:13

In summary Paul stressed the priority of brotherly love. He did not demand that the knowledgeable relinquish their right, but he illustrated how he would apply the principle to himself. Paul did not want any brother to fall (cf. 1Co_8:9) but to be “built up” (cf. 1Co_8:1), and knowledge governed by love accomplished that.
As a final note to this chapter it should be understood that Paul did not say that a knowledgeable Christian must abandon his freedom to the ignorant prejudice of a “spiritual” bigot. The “weak brother” (1Co_8:11) was one who followed the example of another Christian, not one who carped and coerced that knowledgeable Christian into a particular behavioral pattern. Also it was unlikely that Paul saw this weak brother as permanently shackling the freedom of the knowledgeable Christian. The “weak brother” was no omnipresent phantom but an individual who was to be taught so that he too could enjoy his freedom (Gal_5:1). Paul has said a tremendous thing here. Not only will he not sin, but he will not do anything that might cause someone else to sin. Paul says, even if I can never eat meat again, I would even do that to keep my weaker brother from sinning. Will we do as much?

Romans Chapter 6 Part Two

Romans 6:12

The attitude of mind that a believer has died to sin must be translated into action in his experience. Paul commanded, Therefore do not let sin reign (pres. imper., “do not let sin continue to reign”) as it did before salvation. The present imperative negative can also be translated, “Stop letting sin reign.” When sin reigns in people’s lives and bodies, they obey its evil desires. This is plainly saying that we must get the flesh under the control of the spirit.
Our mortal body is the only remaining repository where sin finds the believer vulnerable. The brain and its thinking processes are part of the body and thus tempt our souls with its sinful lusts.
As I said before, our will, will be controlled by the spirit or the flesh. If the lusts of the flesh control you, then you do not belong to God.
Sin enslaves (Rom_6:6), making a person subject to his own desires. Epithymia refers to “longings” or “desires,” which may be either good or evil, depending on how the word is used. Here, in the case of sin, the desires are evil. In your mortal body means that sin manifests itself through one’s physical actions in this body. The Greek here stresses that the body is mortal or dying. Perhaps this suggests the foolishness of giving in to the desires of a body that is transitory and decaying. To give in to a dying master is strange indeed. 

 Romans 6:13

Actually this verse repeats the command of Rom_6:12 in more specific terms. Do not offer (lit., “do not continue to present,” or “stop presenting”) the parts of your body (lit., “your members”; cf. Rom_6:19) to sin, as instruments (hopla, frequently in military context, “weapons” or “armor”; cf. Rom_13:12; 2Co_6:7; 2Co_10:4) of wickedness (adikias, “unrighteousness” in contrasting parallelism with righteousness, later in Rom_6:13). On the contrary, in sharp contrast, Paul commanded, offer (aorist imper., “present once and for all”; also used in Rom_6:19) yourselves to God, as those who have been brought from death to life (lit., “as if being alive out from dead ones”; cf. Joh_5:24) and offer the parts of your body (lit., “and your members”) to Him as instruments (hopla) of righteousness (dikaiosynēs). Yield or present refers to a decision of the will. Before sin can have power over a believer, it must first pass through his will. Our members are the parts of our physical body, the headquarters from which sin operates in the believer.
Notice here, that it is in our power to control this.  There is a war constantly between the flesh and the spirit. We must not yield to temptation. One of the easiest ways to not be tempted is to be reading and studying God's word every day and stay busy.
Ephesians chapter 6 is a good Scripture to study to learn how to battle for the Lord, verse 10 is good place to begin.
Instruments of righteousness are tools for accomplishing that which violates God’s holy will and law. A related passage is Paul’s exhortation, “Offer your bodies as living sacrifices… to God” (Rom_12:1). Because they were once dead in sin (cf. Eph_2:1) but have been given new life (Rom_6:11) believers ought to live for God. Their bodies should be used not for sin (Rom_6:12) or unrighteousness (Rom_6:13) but for promoting righteousness (cf. “bodies” and “body”; Rom_7:5, Rom_7:23; 1Co_6:15).

Romans 6:14

God’s design is that sin shall not be your master (kyrieusei; “shall not rule as lord”; cf. Rom_6:9). The reason this should not happen is that you are not under Law, but under grace. Sin must be able to exercise control in our bodies or Paul’s admonition becomes unnecessary. But sin does not have to reign there; so the apostle expresses his confidence that those who are Christ’s will not allow it to.
Not under law but under grace: This does not mean God has abrogated His moral law. The law is good, holy and righteous, but it cannot be kept, so it curses. Since it cannot assist anyone to keep God’s moral standard, it can only show the standard and thus rebuke and condemn those who fail to keep it.
Grace requires more than the law. The law means following a set of rules, but in grace the desires of the heart can even be sin. The Christian under grace must walk in newness of life. Our walk must be in the Light of Jesus.
John 12:35-36 "Then Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you: for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth." "While ye have light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of light. These things spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself from them."
Jesus is the Light, read chapter 1 of John about Jesus as the Light.
Paul had already explained that “the Law was added so that the trespass might increase” (Rom_5:20), and elsewhere he declared, “The power of sin is the Law” (1Co_15:56). If believers were still under the Law, it would be impossible to keep sin from exercising mastery. But since believers are “under grace,” this can be done by following Paul’s instructions.
Romans 6:15-16

The mention that believers are “under grace” (Rom_6:14) raised another aberrant idea that the apostle refuted. The question is, Shall we sin because we are… under grace instead of the Law? The Greek aorist (past) tense here may have the sense of committing an act of sin now and then, in contrast to living a life of sin as stated in Rom_6:1. Paul’s response was the same as before (Rom_6:2): By no means! (mē genoito; cf. comments on Rom_3:4) The believer is no longer under the law as a condition of acceptance with God, an impossible condition to meet and one designed only to show man his sinfulness, but under grace, which enables him to truly fulfill the law’s righteous requirements.
As we said above, grace requires God's laws to be written on the heart. The heart will be judged. Jesus said, if you lust in your heart for a woman, you have committed adultery already. Grace received is not a license to sin.
Again he proceeded to explain why that idea cannot be accepted. He asked, Don’t you know (“perceive intuitively” a self-evident truth; cf. Rom_6:9) that in effect there is no middle ground between being a slave to sin and a slave to obedience to God. As the Lord Jesus said, “No one can serve two masters.… You cannot serve both God and money” (Mat_6:24; Luk_16:13). Paul also pointed out that being a slave to sin leads to death (cf. Rom_6:21, Rom_6:23). This is not physical death only or even spiritual death only, but death in general as the natural consequence and inevitable concomitant of sin (cf. Gen_2:17). On the other hand being a slave to obedience (to God and His gospel obviously) leads to righteousness (again righteousness in the general sense as equivalent to eternal life or glorification). We cannot call Jesus Christ our Lord unless we obey Him.  If he is our Lord, we are under His command. 
I Peter 1:13-16 "Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and hope to the end for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ;" "As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance:" "But as he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation; (or conduct)" "Because it is written, Be ye holy; for I am holy."
We choose who to follow. We have a free will and we will to follow Jesus or the lust of the flesh.
Death is the normal consequence of sin (which is disobeying God); righteousness is the normal consequence of obeying God and living for Him.

Romans 6:17-18

This discussion reminded the Apostle Paul of what the grace of God had already accomplished in his readers’ lives and he burst forth in praise. Before they responded to the gospel they had been slaves to sin, but they wholeheartedly (lit., “out from hearts,” thus inwardly and genuinely, not merely externally) obeyed (cf. “obedience” in 1Pe_1:2) the form of teaching to which they were entrusted. Everyone, before they came to Jesus was the servants of sin.
I John 1:10: "If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us."
We read in chapter 5 of Romans that all men have sinned.  Thank God we do not have to remain in sin.  We who believe in Christ have taken on the righteousness of Jesus Christ and no longer serve sin.
“Form of doctrine”: In the Greek, the word “form” is a word for a mold such as a craftsman would use to cast molten metal. Paul’s point is that God pours His new children into the mold of divine truth. New believers have an innate and compelling desire to know and obey God’s Word.
Hearing the teaching of God’s Word, they committed themselves to those truths. That commitment was evidenced by their response to the gospel and their being baptized. The result was that they have been set free from sin and have become slaves (past tense in Gr.) to righteousness (cf. Rom_6:22). Because we are in Christ and He died in our place, we are counted dead with Him. This is the fundamental premise of chapter 6 and Paul spends the most of this chapter explaining and supporting it.
We read of this change from sin to righteousness in II Corinthians 5:17 "Therefore if any man [be] in Christ, [he is] a new creature: old things are passed away; behold all things are become new."
This is positional and must be manifested in daily experience, but it demonstrates again that there is no middle ground. Christians are not to give in to sin because they are dead to it and no longer slaves of it. It is totally contrary to God’s plan for slaves of righteousness to become enslaved to sin!
Romans 6:19

To talk of being “enslaved” to righteousness and to God is not correct in one sense, Paul wrote, because God does not hold His children in bondage. But the word “slavery” appropriately describes an unregenerate person’s relationship to sin and to Satan. So Paul used “slavery” for contrasting the relationship of the believer as well. Before developing this idea further, the apostle in effect apologized for its use — I put this in human terms (lit., “I am speaking in human fashion”) — because you are weak in your natural selves (lit., “your flesh”). Apparently Paul felt that his readers’ spiritual perception was feeble so he used this terminology from human experience. Then he basically repeated the ideas of Rom_6:16-17. Unsaved Romans had offered their bodies to impurity and to ever-increasing wickedness (lit., “lawlessness”; cf. Rom_1:24-27; Rom_6:13). They had voluntarily become enslaved! But Paul exhorted believers now to offer themselves as slaves to righteousness leading to holiness (perfect holiness, as the end of the process [cf. v. 22]) in contrast with their former impurity. The NKJV begins this scripture thus: “I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh”. Paul use of the master/slave analogy was an accommodation to their humanness and their difficulty in grasping divine truth.
“Your members” as was explained in v.13 are the parts of our physical body, the headquarters from which sin operates in the believer.
“Iniquity unto iniquity” or like a vicious animal, sin’s appetite only grows when it is fed.
Romans 6:20-23

Paul once again stated that slavery to sin and to righteousness is mutually exclusive (cf. Rom_6:13, Rom_6:16). But he went on to indicate the superiority of being enslaved to righteousness and God. The benefit (this Gr. word is usually trans. “fruit”) of enslavement to sin was that it produced things that a believer is now ashamed of. Paul is explaining, here, he is making this just as clear as he can so that they will understand.  He is not just speaking in parables or even spiritually, but literally so those in the flesh can understand. Sin occurs through lust of the flesh. 
“Ye were free from righteousness”: Meaning spiritually dead in sins and trespasses.
 But even worse, “the end of those things is death” (lit. trans.). We read in James 1:15 "Then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin: and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death." 
We read specifically in Corinthians, some of the fruit of unrighteousness that will keep a person from inheriting the kingdom of God. 
I Corinthians 6:9-10 "Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind," "Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor Extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God."
 Responding to the gospel by faith and accepting Jesus Christ completely reverses things for an individual. He is now… set free from sin (cf. Rom_6:18) and has been enslaved to God with the result that he has the benefit of holiness (cf. Rom_6:19), the subject of chapters 6-8.
The sinful life gives no benefit (Rom_6:21), but salvation gives the benefit of a holy, clean life (Rom_6:22). Whereas the “end” (telos) or result of sin is death (Rom_6:21), the “end” of salvation is eternal life. A servant obeys his master. Obedience is better than sacrifice. God wants our loyalty and our love.
Ephesians 5:9 "(For the fruit of the Spirit [is] in all goodness and righteousness and truth;)"
All of this is saying to us, that if Jesus is living inside of us, we will walk through this life as if Jesus was taking the steps Himself.  Self will be no more; Christ-in-me shall rule. If we do not give up, we will inherit eternal life.
Galatians 6:9 "And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not."
“Holiness”: The benefit of being slaves to God is sanctification, the outcome of which is eternal life.
Eternal life is a gift that cannot be earned (cf. Eph_2:8-9; Tit_3:5).
Paul then summarized these contrasts. The wages (the Gr. word opsōnia originally meant a soldier’s pay) of sin is death (eternal death here, in contrast with “eternal life” in Rom_6:23). This death is eternal separation from God in hell, in which unbelievers suffer conscious torment forever (Luk_16:24-25). This is the wages they have earned and deserve because of their sin (cf. Rom_5:12; Rom_7:13). By contrast, the gift (charisma, “grace-gift”) of God is eternal life (cf. Joh_3:16, Joh_3:36).
This verse describes two inexorable absolutes:
1.      Spiritual death is the paycheck for every man’s slavery to sin; and
2.      Eternal life is a free gift God gives undeserving sinners who believe in His Son.
Three times in this chapter Paul wrote that sin results in death (Rom_6:16, Rom_6:21, Rom_6:23). But believers have been set free from sin (Rom_6:18, Rom_6:22) and are no longer slaves to it (Rom_6:6, Rom_6:20) but are “slaves to righteousness” (Rom_6:16, Rom_6:18-19; cf. Rom_6:13). Because they are alive to God (Rom_6:11) and have eternal life (Rom_6:23) they should present themselves to Him (Rom_6:13, Rom_6:19) and live accordingly, not letting sin master them (Rom_6:6, Rom_6:11-14, Rom_6:22).