Tuesday, April 9, 2013

1 Corinthians Chapter 5

1 Corinthians 5:1

Disorders in the Church
In the spirit of love but with the need for their discipline in mind, Paul turned in his letter to deal with certain disorders in the church, including their failures to discipline an immoral brother (1Co_5:1-13), to resolve personal disputes in a godly manner (1Co_6:1-11), and to maintain sexual purity (1Co_6:12-20).
Failure to discipline a sinner
Pride is the opposite of love because it produces self-concern, while love responds to the needs of others. Corinthian pride had produced not only disunity but also indifference and an unwillingness to exercise discipline within the church.
The issue concerned a Corinthian Christian who was carrying on an incestuous affair with his stepmother, a relationship prohibited both in the Old Testament (Lev_18:8; Deu_22:22) and in Roman law (Cicero Cluentes 6. 15 and Gaius Institutis 1. 63). Fornication, in this particular Scripture, means harlotry. We notice first about this, that it seems to be common knowledge. This sin and incest {so prevalent in our day} are so bad that even the heathen, who do not know God and His laws, do not practice this sin. In the book of Leviticus, there are definite regulations about this very thing.
This sexual immorality was so vile that even the church’s pagan neighbors were doubtless scandalized by it. The Corinthians had rationalized or minimized this sin which was common knowledge, ever though Paul had written them before about it (see verse 9).
The Greek for “immorality” is the root of the English word “pornography”. “His father’s wife” is referring to a stepmother, with whom having sexual relations bore the same sinful stigma as if between him and his natural mother. Incest was punishable by death in the Old Testament and was both uncommon and illegal under Roman law.
The fact that Paul said nothing about disciplining the woman suggests that she was not a Christian.

1 Corinthians 5:2

The shameful situation did not seem to faze the Corinthians in the least. If anything, the affair may have even bloated their arrogant spirits. The godly response would have been grief for this brother (cf. 1Co_12:26; Gal_6:1-2), leading to discipline which would exclude him from intimacy with the congregation until he would repent (cf. Mat_18:15-17). These Christians know about this and have done nothing about it. Some were so arrogant and carnal as to excuse even that extreme wickedness.
This is like so many in our day, who believe if you have been baptized, you are not guilty of sins you commit. “Taken away”: Paul is saying, why have you not forcibly removed him from your group? It is as if you approve of what he is doing.
This could give this church a very bad name in the community. The fact that they have not dealt with this within the church would make it even worse. They are puffed up with pride that they are Christians and are not dealing with the sin that is in the church.
Eph. 5:11“And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove [them].”
Reprove is better translated “expose”. The believer’s duty is expressed here in two ways. Negatively, he is not to have any fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, that is, not to indulge in the sins of the unsaved. Positively, he is to “expose” (reprove) these sins, that is, bring them to light and show them for what they really are, so that the unbeliever may see their hideous nature and their terrible consequences.
So what are Christians to do? Let’s take a look at this scripture from Matthew.
Matthew 18:15-17 "Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother." "But if he will not hear [thee, then] take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established." "And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell [it] unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican."
If the violator of God’s Word will not listen after the things in Matthew 18:15-17 are done in a lovingly manner, pursuant to v.17 they are to be regarded by the church as “a heathen and a tax collector”.
The idea is not merely to punish the offender, or to shun him completely, but to remove him as a detrimental influence from the fellowship of the church, and henceforth to regard him as an evangelistic prospect rather than as a brother. Ultimately, the sin for which he is excommunicated is a hard-hearted impenitence. 

1 Corinthians 5:3-5

In view of the Corinthian indifference to the matter, Paul was compelled to act. By the authority vested in him as an apostle, he passed judgment on the offender which he asked the church to enact at their next meeting. Paul has just heard of this sin from afar, and he knows exactly what should be done about this matter. Those who were in the church in authority should have already handled this.
Paul had already passed judgment on the sinner and those of the church needed to also.
Here was an example of the power he had earlier referred to (1Co_4:20-21). What the exercise of this power accomplished is not certain. The translation of the Greek word sarkos by the sinful nature suggests the idea that the man’s fleshly appetites were to be annulled. However, several factors suggest a different discipline, namely corporeal affliction — with sarkos understood as “body”. (The result, of course, is the same — the man’s purification.) First, the latter is the usual meaning of the term when it is juxtaposed with spirit, which signifies the whole man in his inner and external being. “In the name of our Lord”: Consistent with His holy person and will. “Gathered together”: This action is to be done when the church meets publicly. “Power”: Authority is in view. Action against unrepentant sinning in the church carries the weight of the Lord’s authority.
The prescription for church discipline must be read in light of the parable of the lost sheep in Matthew 18 verses 12-14. The goal of this process is restoration. If successful, “you have gained your brother”. The first step is to tell him his fault privately.
Second, the word translated destroyed (olethron) is a strong term, the noun form of which (olethreutou) occurs elsewhere in this letter (1Co_10:10) where it is translated “the destroying angel” who killed men. Third, Paul also spoke in this letter about a discipline which leads to death (1Co_11:30) with the same end in view — the ultimate preservation of the person (1Co_11:32; cf. 1Ti_1:20; 1Jn_5:16). “Deliver ….. To Satan”: “Deliver” is a strong term, used of judicial sentencing. This is equal to excommunication the professed believer. It amounts to putting that person out of the blessing of Christian worship and fellowship by thrusting him into Satan’s realm, the world system.
“The destruction of the flesh”: This refers to divine chastening for sin that can result in illness and even death.
“Spirit …. Saved”: The unrepentant person may suffer greatly under God’s judgment, but will not be an evil influence in the church; and he will more likely be saved under that judgment than if tolerated and accepted in the church.
This is not saying that they would automatically be saved because of the suffering of the flesh. This is saying that the protection is removed from this person, and Satan can do with this sinner's body whatever he will. This is done to cause the sinner to repent. If you repent of sin, your spirit will be saved, even if your body is ravaged by that sin. Paul is saying also, in the verse above, that these are not his own personal wishes for this man, but the will of the Lord Jesus Christ.

1 Corinthians 5:6

There was, of course, no excuse for the Corinthians’ pathetic behavior. Paul reminded them of a truth they already knew but were failing to practice — a little yeast soon permeates the whole batch of dough. A small sickness can eventually kill a body. Just the fact that a person has accepted Jesus as their Savior does not exempt them from punishment for their sin. Paul is saying here, if you let this go without taking care of this, the sin will spread in your church. You must remove the one who is infected with sin, so that this disease will not spread to the other members.
“Glorying” as in this case means “boasting”. It was not good because their proud sense of satisfaction blinded them to their duty in regard to blatant sin that devastated the church.
“Leaven” in scripture is used to represent influence, and in most cases, evil influence.
“Whole lump”: When tolerated, sin will permeate and corrupt the whole local church.
The need for church discipline is based on the same principle. 

1 Corinthians 5:7-8

As the literal yeast was removed from the house during the Festival of Unleavened Bread (Exo_12:15-20; Exo_13:1-10), so that which it illustrated, sin, was to be removed from the house of God, the local church, during its “Festival of Unleavened Bread,” a continual observance for a Christian who has found in Christ’s death on the cross the once-for-all sacrifice of the Passover Lamb (cf. Joh_1:29; Heb_10:10, Heb_10:14). Leaven, in the verse above, is sin. Paul is saying, clean up your church, so that it will be without sin again. Purge, in this Scripture, means to cleanse thoroughly. Do not leave anything at all that is associated with this sin. Christ was the unleavened Bread. He was without sin. If we are truly followers of Him, we must be free of sin, as well. Jesus' sacrifice for us was to do away with the sin in our life. A person who sins must repent quickly and get forgiveness for that sin.
Including the influence of sinful church members “Keep the feast”: In contrast to the Old Testament Passover feast celebrated annually, believers constantly celebrate the “feast” of the new Passover, Jesus Christ. As the Jews who celebrate Passover do so with unleavened bread, so believers celebrate their continual Passover with unleavened lives.
The life of a Christian should be a continual remembrance of the great sacrifice that Jesus made for us. Jesus {the perfect Lamb sacrifice} was our Substitute. We deserved the death on the cross, but He took our place. I see in this a personal relationship with the Lord Jesus. In the Passover, the lamb was killed and the blood drawn of the animal, but had they not put the blood over the door, death would have come to that house.
We must not only believe that He gave His body at Calvary for our sin, but we must individually apply that precious blood to our life. He must be our personal Savior. We must desire to be like Jesus. This next Scripture tells it all.
Galatians 2:20 "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me."
Sin should not be tolerated in your life, if you are a Christian. Anyone proclaiming Christianity should have no desire in their heart to sin. We should constantly be sincere with the Lord. Truth should be our standard.
 “Christ our Passover”: Just as unleavened bread symbolized being freed from Egypt by the Passover, so the church is to be unleavened, since it has been separated from the dominion of sin and death by the perfect Passover Lamb, the Lord Jesus Christ. The church is therefore, to remove everything sinful in order to be separate from the old life,
This was nowhere more truely than in the celebration which commemorated that sacrificial act, the Lord’s Supper, the quintessential act of fellowship for Christians. Probably Paul meant to exclude the unrepentant Christian from this meal in particular.

1 Corinthians 5:9-10

In an earlier letter Paul had given direction on this subject but the Corinthians had applied it only to those outside the church. Paul showed the absurdity of such a view by noting that such compliance would necessitate leaving this world. We become like those we keep company with. Paul had warned of the dangers of fellowshipping with sinners. Fornicator, in this particular Scripture, is taken from the word pornos, and can be translated male prostitute. This includes homosexuals. This leaves no doubt as to the danger of those who associate with those who are involved in sex sins. This is primarily speaking of unnatural acts in sex relations, but includes adultery between male and female, as well. One thing we must note in this, it is alright to go and witness to the lost, this is just speaking of not getting caught up in their sin.
Eph. 5:11 "And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove [them]."
In Eph. 5:11 Paul’s instruction is plain and direct: Christians are to faithfully live in righteousness and purity and have nothing at all to do with the evil ways and works of Satan and the world. The two ways of living are unalterably opposed to each other and mutually exclusive. The Christian’s responsibility does not stop with his own rejection of evil. He is also responsible for exposing and opposing darkness wherever it is found, especially when it is found in the church. The statement, "not altogether" just means that he did not forbid casual association with these sinners, but continuous association, which might cause you to get involved in their sin. We are in this world with those who commit these sins, but we are not of this world. We are a holy people set aside for the purposes of God. We are not holy in our own right, but have put on righteousness which Jesus provided for us when He washed us in His precious blood. There would be no point in us staying in this world, except we have the opportunity to win people out of these sins to the living God.
Paul was certainly no advocate of monasticism (or its separatist kind in Protestantism).

1 Corinthians 5:11

What he called for was disciplinary action for anyone associated with the church, whether a brother or one in name only, who took part in the church while continuing a life of sin. The discipline demanded for such a one was exclusion from fellowship with other members. Certainly the prohibition extended to an exclusion from eating the communal meal, the Lord’s Supper. Paul clarifies his intention in the earlier letter. He expected them to disassociate with all who said they were brothers, but had a consistent pattern of sin. The meal was a sign of acceptance and fellowship in those days.
Notice the fact that Paul called him a brother here, which means they were of like persuasion. It seems it is much worse for a Christian to be caught up in these sins, than it is for those who have not repented and given their lives to the Lord. To sin in full knowledge is much worse than to sin and not be aware that you are sinning. It does not say, again, that you are not to come in casual contact with them, but not to eat with them. We are not to turn our head the other way when a brother or sister sins, and act as if it did not happen. When you fellowship by eating with them, it is as if you are condoning what they are doing.
Other social contact might also have been excluded. It was unlikely, however, that the sanctioned individual was barred from all congregational meetings, for the church’s ministry might lead to his conviction and repentance (1Co_14:24-25).

1 Corinthians 5:12-13

It was not Paul’s business to judge those outside the church (cf., e.g., his silence about the woman in 1Co_5:1); still less was it the business of the Corinthians. But discipline within the church was their responsibility. Paul is interested in keeping the converts that the Lord has given him. He cannot change the world, unless they want to be changed. His instructions are for those he claims as his own converts.
Those in the world God will judge (cf. Act_17:31). But those within the Christian community who continue in sin with an unrepentant spirit, the church should discipline by expulsion. There is a day of judgment coming when the Lord Jesus will judge the whole world. Paul is saying, here, we do not judge the world, Jesus does. If someone is determined to live in sin like the world, put them out there in the world with the rest of the sinners. Let God judge them on judgment day, just as He wills the rest of the sinners. Those who are determined to sin should not be left with the Christians to contaminate them.

Romans Chapter 4 – Part Two

Romans 4:14-15

As Paul explained, if Jews could become heirs by obeying the Law, then faith has no value (kekenōtai, “it has been made empty”; cf. the noun kenos, “empty, without content,” in 1Co_15:10, 1Co_15:58). Also the promise is worthless (katērgētai, “has been made invalid”). The reason this would be true is that Law brings wrath (lit., “the Law keeps on producing wrath”) as a consequence of disobedience. We see the law is totally different from the justification by faith that came from Abraham. Abraham was not promised to bless all nations through the law which was given to just one nation, Israel) but the promise came through faith. His seed that we have mentioned so many times before in these lessons is all the believers in Christ.
Galatians 3:28  "There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus."
Galatians 3:29  "And if ye [be] Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise."
If only those who perfectly keep the law, (impossibility) receives the promise, faith has no value. Making a promise contingent on an impossible condition nullifies the promise.
You can easily see, if you can see heir ship by work, it would not be by promise. Law is exacting and must be obeyed to the letter, but the grace of Jesus Christ leaves opportunity for repentance and new life. Abraham did not earn the right, he believed God and that was enough. God wants us to trust Him.
Actually Abraham's promise from God was twofold.  He was promised in the physical the Promised Land (Israel). In the spirit these promises went much further. The promise of the spirit was not of this earth, but for the Promised Land (heaven) for all who believe.
 No one can keep the Law fully; therefore God, in wrath against sin, judges those who disobey.
Paul then stated a related general principle: And where there is no law, there is no transgression. How can you break a law, if there is no law? If you break the law (that you are living under), you will be punished (wrath). If there is no law, you are not punished. (There are no laws written down on paper for Christians). God's laws are written in our heart. We are pardoned by the blood of Jesus Christ.
A person may still be sinning in his action, but if there is no command prohibiting it his action does not have the character of a transgression, an overstepping of a prohibition (cf. Rom_5:13).
Romans 4:16

Paul then drew his conclusion. Therefore (lit., “On account of this”) the promise comes by (ek, “out of”) faith so that it may be by (kata, “according to the standard of”) grace. Responding in faith to God’s promise is not meritorious, since the promise springs from His grace, His disposition of favor toward those who deserve His wrath. The human exercise of faith is simply the prerequisite response of trust in God and His promise. Since faith and grace go together, and since the promise is by grace, the promise can be received only by faith, not by the Law.
Another reason the promise is by faith is so that it may be guaranteed to all Abraham’s offspring, not only the Jews (those… of the Law) but to all who exercise faith in God. The power of justification is God’s great grace, not man’s faith.
The following Scripture speaks of this grace   I Corinthians 1:4 "I thank my God always on your behalf, for the grace of God which is given you by Jesus Christ;"
Grace (unmerited favor) was offered to each of us (not because we were worthy) but because God loved us each one.
II Timothy 1:9 "Who hath saved us, and called [us] with an holy calling, not according to our  works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,"
Just the love of God provided Jesus Christ our Savior and Lord for each of us. Our obligation is to reach out and receive this gift of grace in Jesus Christ. This scripture is just saying that this is talking not only of the believing Jews, but to the believing Gentiles (which is of the faith of Abraham).
If the promise were fulfilled for those who keep the Law, then no Gentiles (or Jews either) could be saved! But this cannot be, because Abraham… is the father of us all, that is, all who believe (cf. “our” in Rom_4:1; also cf. Gal_3:29).
Romans 4:17

Paul then supported his conclusion in Rom_4:16 with scriptural authority, quoting God’s covenantal promise from Gen_17:5. The fact that believers in this Church Age are identified with Abraham and God’s covenant with him does not mean that the physical and temporal promises to Abraham and his physical descendants are either spiritualized or abrogated. It simply means that God’s covenant and Abraham’s response of faith to it have spiritual dimensions as well as physical and temporal aspects. The quotation is in effect a parenthesis. Therefore the latter part of Rom_4:17 connects with the close of Rom_4:16 : “He is the father of us all…” in the sight of God. (The words He is our father are not in the Gr., but are added in the NIV for clarification.) God… gives life to the dead and calls things that are not (lit., “the nonexistent things”) as though they were (lit., “as existing”). This Scripture has been greatly misunderstood by many.
In verse 19 you will see that Abraham experienced this first hand.
“And calleth those things which be not as though they were” is another reference to the forensic nature of justification. God can declare believing sinners to be righteous even thought they are not, by imputing His righteousness to them, just as God made or declared Jesus “sin” and punished Him, though he was not a sinner. Those whom He justifies, He will conform to the image of His Son.
Many nations could not be just Israel.  Israel is just one nation. This Scripture is speaking of the Jew and Gentile. The Gentiles were not, because they were heathen people. Through Jesus they are the family of God, which they had not been previously.
Here is the definition of quickened which I found might help to understand what this is saying, especially when we look at verse 19. “Quickening” - the process of showing signs of life; "the quickening of seed that will become ripe grain"
Romans 4:18

By Faith In God’s Promise
Though humanly there was no hope of ever having a child, the old patriarch believed God’s Word. Against all hope, Abraham in hope believed. God honored his faith, and he became the father (ancestor) of many nations. This was in accord with God’s promise, so shall your offspring be (a quotation of Gen_15:5).
Identifying God in this way obviously refers to God’s promise in Gen_17:1-27 following the statement quoted above that Abraham and Sarah would have a son of promise when Abraham was 100 and Sarah was 90 (Gen_17:17, Gen_17:19; Gen_18:10; Gen_21:5; cf. Rom_4:19). That he would be the ancestor of many nations seemed impossible in his and Sarah’s childless old age. When the promise was given to Abraham that he would become the father of many nations, it seemed impossible. Here he and his wife Sarah were very old people and have never had any children. For a person who thought with a carnal mind this would be impossibility. Sarah had passed the age of women have children.
Abraham did not listen to the carnal mind, but believed all things were possible with God. His faith in God and nothing else completed his righteousness to God.
God honored his great faith and gave him a son by Sarah (Isaac). Isaac was the beginning of the promise that Abraham was to become father of many nations.
Romans 4:19

Rom_4:19-21 restate in specific details the first part of Rom_4:18 about Abraham’s hope. Abraham without weakening in his faith… faced the fact (lit., “considered carefully”) that his body was as good as dead (some Gr. mss. add the word “already”), a reference to the patriarch’s advanced age (Gen_17:17; Gen_21:5). Abraham also considered carefully that Sarah’s womb was also dead. She was unable to conceive a child, as had been demonstrated through their life together (cf. Gen_16:1-2; Gen_18:11) and as was certainly true for her at age 90 (Gen_17:17). You see Abraham did not think with his carnal mind. He knew all things were possible with God. God had created him in the beginning and he knew God could restore his and Sarah's youth enough that they could bring forth a child. 
(All men have their measure of faith.) Abraham had great faith beyond the measure each man requires. He believed so strongly, he became known as the father of the faithful.
Romans 4:20-21

In spite of the humanly impossible situation, Abraham did not waver through (lit., “by”) unbelief. “Waver” (diekrithē) means “to be divided” (sometimes trans. “doubt,” as in Jas_1:6). The patriarch was strengthened in his faith (lit., “was empowered [enedynamōthē, from endynamoō] by means of faith”). God, responding to Abraham’s faith, empowered him and Sarah physically to generate the child of promise. Also he gave glory to God, that is, he praised God by exalting or exclaiming His attributes. Jesus' own words. Matthew 19:26 "But Jesus beheld [them], and said unto them, With men this is impossible; but with God all things are possible." Abraham knew in his heart that nothing was impossible to God. His faith was not of this world, but in God.
Abraham was fully persuaded that God had power (dynatos, “spiritual ability”) to do what He had promised. Abraham knew whatever God said he would do, He was perfectly capable of doing.
Believing God affirms His existence and character and thus gives Him glory.
What confidence in God this spiritual forefather possessed! He “in hope believed” (Rom_4:18); he was not weak in faith despite insuperable odds (Rom_4:19); he was not divided in his thinking by unbelief (Rom_4:20); he was empowered by faith (Rom_4:20); and he was fully persuaded God has the ability to do what He had said (Rom_4:21).
Romans 4:22

Paul concluded his illustration about Abraham by saying, this is why (dio kai, “wherefore also”) it was credited to him as righteousness. Abraham’s response of faith to God and God’s promise to him was the human requirement for God’s justifying Abraham, for God’s declaring that Abraham stood righteous before Him. No wonder God credited such faith with righteousness! “Therefore”: Meaning because of his genuine faith.
Righteousness is not earned but received by faith. We are made righteous in God's sight when we are washed in the blood of the Lamb.
Romans 4:23-24

Rom_4:23-25 apply the truth about justification and its illustration in Abraham to the apostle’s readers — from the believers in Rome who first read this letter to people today. The divine declaration of Abraham’s justification was written not for him alone, but also for us, to whom God will credit righteousness. This just means that not only is faith full payment for Abraham’s righteousness, but anyone who has faith in Jesus Christ is counted righteous, as well.
All scripture has universal application, and Abraham’s experience is no exception. If Abraham was justified by his faith, then all others are justified on the same basis.
Such an act of justification, however, is not for everyone. It is for us who believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead (lit., “out from dead ones”; cf. Rom_6:4; Rom_8:11). Look at Romans 10:9
"That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved."
This leaves absolutely no doubt what it takes to be saved.
Repeatedly in this chapter Paul referred to Abraham and other believers having righteousness credited to them because of their faith (Rom_4:3, Rom_4:5-6, Rom_4:9-11, Rom_4:23-24).
Romans 4:25

Mentioning the Lord Jesus led Paul to state again the Savior’s central place in God’s program of providing righteousness for sinful people by grace through faith. Both Christ’s death and His resurrection are essential to that work of justification. He was delivered over (by God the Father; cf. Rom_8:32) to death for our sins (lit., “on account of or because of” [dia with the accusative] “our trespasses” [paraptōmata, “false steps”; cf. Rom_5:15, Rom_5:17, Rom_5:20; Eph_2:1]). Though not a direct quotation, these words in substance are taken from Isa_53:12 (cf. Isa_53:4-6). Also He was raised to life for (“on account of” or “because of” [dia with the accusative]) our justification. Jesus was without sin. He was innocent of all sin. He took our sins on his body and paid our penalty in full. I should have been crucified. My sins help put Jesus on the cross.
I Corinthians 15:3 "For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;"
Isaiah 53:5 "But he [was] wounded for our transgressions, [he was] bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace [was] upon him; and with his stripes we are healed."
Jesus bought us and paid for us with his own precious blood. Our salvation lies in him.
Christ’s death as God’s sacrificial Lamb (cf. Joh_1:29) was to pay the redemptive price for the sins of all people (Rom_3:24) so that God might be free to forgive those who respond by faith to that provision. Christ’s resurrection was the proof (or demonstration and vindication) of God’s acceptance of Jesus’ sacrifice (cf. Rom_1:4). Thus because He lives, God can credit His provided righteousness to the account of every person who responds by faith to that offer.
In Rom_4:1-25, Paul presented several irrefutable reasons why justification is by faith: (1) Since justification is a gift, it cannot be earned by works (Rom_4:1-8). (2) Since Abraham was justified before he was circumcised, circumcision has no relationship to justification (Rom_4:9-12). (3) Since Abraham was justified centuries before the Law, justification is not based on the Law (Rom_4:13-17). (4) Abraham was justified because of his faith in God, not because of his works (Rom_4:18-25).