Thursday, April 2, 2015

Romans Chapter 13

Romans 13:1-3

In relation to authority
Rome was the imperial capital, the seat of the empire’s civil government. As residents in Rome, Paul’s initial readers were aware of both the glory and the shame of that city in the days of Nero, who reigned from a.d. 54 to 68. But they were also citizens of Christ’s kingdom (Php_3:20; Col_1:13). Appropriately, therefore, Paul discussed a Christian’s relationship to his government and civil rulers. Both in its length and specific details this discussion is the key New Testament passage on the subject (cf. 1Ti_2:1-4; Tit_3:1; 1Pe_2:13-17).
The apostle’s basic exhortation is, Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities (lit., “higher authorities”). The basic reason for such submission is that those authorities are established by God (cf. Dan_4:17, Dan_4:25, Dan_4:34-35). In this scripture, being subject to a higher power comes from a Greek word used of a soldier’s absolute obedience to his superior officer. Scripture makes one exception to this command: when obedience to civil authority would require disobedience to God’s Word.
Unto the higher powers speaks of every position of civil authority without regard to competence, morality, reasonableness, or any other caveat.
Since God alone is the sovereign ruler of the universe, He has instituted 4 authorities on earth:
1.       The government over all citizens
2.      The church over all believers
3.      The parents over all children
4.      The masters over all employees
God instituted human government to reward good and to restrain sin in an evil, fallen world.
An individual who rebels against the authority, therefore, is rebelling against (lit., “has taken a stand against”) what God has instituted (lit., “the ordinance of God”). Such persons are thus actually rebelling against God, and bring civil and/or divine judgment on themselves. Those who obey and do right need have no fear of authorities; in fact, civil leaders commend those who do good.                                Proverbs 14:35 "The king's favour [is] toward a wise servant: but his wrath is [against] him that causeth shame."
I Peter 3:13 "And who [is] he that will harm you, if ye be followers of that which is good?" 

Romans 13:4-5

Furthermore, a civil leader is God’s servant, a concept often forgotten today. By commending those who do right (Rom_13:3), a civil leader himself does good (Rom_13:4). But on the other hand he bears arms (the sword) as God’s servant (the second time in this verse Paul referred to the ruler this way; cf. Rom_13:6), as an agent of wrath. This really is saying that if we have broken the law, we can expect to be punished. If we speed and are caught we will probably pay a pretty large fine. Other sins require other punishment, but you can be sure God has marked it down for later review.
Speaking of the sword symbolizes the government’s right to inflict punishment on those who do wrong, especially capital punishment.
In the Old Testament when someone was murdered, the closest relative went out and found the criminal and killed him. Pretty swift justice, wouldn't you say.
Numbers 35:19 "The revenger of blood himself shall slay the murderer: when he meeteth him, he shall slay him."
Governmental force, properly used, helps prevent tyranny and executes justice; it brings punishment on the wrongdoer. A Christian has two reasons to be submissive to civil authorities — to avoid possible punishment (lit., “the wrath”) and to heed his conscience, which prods him to obey God’s ordinances. Christian’s need to, out of a sense of obligation to God and to keep a clear conscience before him, not merely obey for the sake of avoiding punishment from the civil authorities.
Acts 24:16 "And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offence toward God, and [toward] men."
II Corinthians 1:12 "For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to you-ward."
You have heard the expression [let your conscience be your guide]. If you are a Christian, that is very good advice. The Christian has the laws of God written on the fleshly part of his or her heart. We are guided by what is pleasing unto God.
Psalms 37:31 "The law of his God [is] in his heart; none of his steps shall slide."  There will come a time when we will not be taught at all of man, but will be totally taught of God.
Hebrews 10:16 "This [is] the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them;"
We can see from this that the heart of mankind is his conscience.

Romans 13:6-7

A Christian’s responsibility to civil authorities involves more than obedience (Rom_13:1, Rom_13:5). It also includes support by paying taxes (cf. Mat_22:21). This is because the leaders, as God’s servants (cf. Rom_13:4), are supposed to give their full time to governing and need support through taxes from citizens, Christians included. Paying tribute is the same as “paying taxes”. Paul uses the term in the broadest possible sense to speak of all kinds of taxes.
That tax was usually a combined income and property tax. Because God ordained human government and demands submission to it, tribute or taxes came into being. The Greek word for taxes referred specifically to taxes paid by individuals, particularly those living in a conquered nation to their foreign rulers, which even makes the taxes more distasteful.
Jesus explicitly taught that taxes are to be paid, even to the pagan Roman government. He set an example by willingly paying the temple tax as we see in Matthew.
Matthew 17:24-27  "And when they were come to Capernaum, they that received tribute [money] came to Peter, and said, Doth not your master pay tribute?" "He saith, Yes. And when he was come into the house, Jesus prevented him, saying, What thinkest thou, Simon? Of whom do the kings of the earth take custom or tribute? of their own children, or of strangers?" "Peter saith unto him, Of strangers. Jesus saith unto him, Then are the children free." "Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast an hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them for me and thee." 
So a Christian ought to give everyone what he owes him (lit., “repay everyone his dues”), whether substance (taxes and revenue) or respect and honor. “Render” translates a Greek word that signifies the payment of something which is owed and is not a voluntary “contribution” as seen by the word “due”.
We are to show sincere respect and attitude to all public officials, including “tax collectors” from which the government provides for our “safety and protection”.
I Peter 2:17 "Honour all [men]. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king."
In our society today, it has become fashionable to disrespect authority of all kinds.  A few years ago our mother taught us to respect others. This is the same thing God says in His Word.
Even the world that does not have Jesus should be shown respect, if they are in higher office. It is really respect for the office we are showing. We must remember that a person is in that particular office because God put him there.
In summing up this lesson, we can see the importance of having great respect for God. We must respect Him and trust Him enough that we will also respect the people He has put in authority. Remember if we do not respect those in authority, then we are saying that God was not wise in choosing that person for that job. We must not question or accuse God, He knows best.

Romans 13:8-10

In light of the future
Discussion of believers’ obligations to civil authorities evidently triggered Paul’s thinking concerning believers’ debts to others. He commanded; Let no debt remain outstanding (lit., “Do not keep on owe anyone anything”) except the continuing debt to love one another (lit., “except loving one another”). In our society today, the number one cause of divorce is debt. Easy credit has caused our young people to over-spend, and then they start blaming each other when they cannot meet their obligations. If we would all practice not owing anyone anything, it would take many of the day to day pressures off, and we could live more peaceful lives. It takes a little longer, but if we save to get something we really want, we will appreciate it more when we do get it.
We are commanded over and over to love each other by God throughout the Scriptures. God set the example of love when He gave His only begotten Son to die on the cross for us. God's type of love we can only hope to have. Agape love asks nothing in return. It is the perfect love.
The love that we show is usually conditional. We usually love because of what someone has done for us, not in spite of what they have done to us. When Jesus was asked, what was the most important commandment that God had given us; He replied:
Mark 12:30-31 "And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this [is] the first commandment." "And the second [is] like, [namely] this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these."
 This is not a prohibition against a proper use of credit; it is an underscoring of a Christian’s obligation to express divine love in all interpersonal relationships. A Christian should never fall short, and so be “in debt,” in loving others (Joh_13:34-35; 1Co_16:14; Eph_5:2; Col_3:14; 1Jn_3:14, 1Jn_3:23; 1Jn_4:7, 1Jn_4:11, 1Jn_4:21).
The importance of continually showing love is seen in the explanation, For he who loves his fellow man (lit., “the other one”) has fulfilled the Law (cf. Mat_22:39; Mar_12:31). Love, not mere external conformity to rules, is the essence of the Law (cf. Gal_5:14). All of the above mentioned sins are against our fellow man. If we love our neighbor as we love ourselves, we will not commit these sins.
To demonstrate that love fulfills the law, Paul cites four of the 10 commandments that deal with human relations and ties them in with an overarching Old Testament command.
If we truly love our neighbors, we will only do what is in his best interest.
Paul then quoted various specific commands from the social section of the Ten Commandments. These prohibitions — not to commit adultery… murder… steal and covet — are the 7th, 6th, 8th, and 10th commandments, in that order (Exo_20:13-15, Exo_20:17). Paul summed up that entire section of the Law by quoting Lev_19:18. The Jewish Rabbis and the Lord Jesus summarized the social section of the Law in the same words (cf. Mat_22:39). Paul then expressed this principle in other words, Love does no harm (lit., “Love does not keep on working evil”) to its neighbor, and then he repeated (cf. Rom_13:8) his basic assertion that love fulfills the Mosaic Law. Love and charity are really the same thing in 1 Corinthians.  Let us look at a Scripture that perfectly describes love. As you read it think love in your mind every time you see charity.
I Corinthians 13:1-4 "Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become [as] sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal." "And though I have [the gift of] prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing." "And though I bestow all my goods to feed [the poor], and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing." "Charity suffereth long, [and] is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up,"
I Corinthians 13:8 "Charity never faileth: but whether [there be] prophecies, they shall fail; whether [there be] tongues, they shall cease; whether [there be] knowledge, it shall vanish away."
I Corinthians 13:13 "And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these [is] charity."  I believe we should repeat again [love is the fulfilling of the law].
Simply put, if we treat others with the same care that we have for ourselves, we will not violate any of God’s laws regarding interpersonal relationships.
Only in Christ can a person meet this or any of the other requirements of the Law (Rom_8:4).

Romans 13:11

Expressing divine love is a Christian’s constant responsibility, but it is especially crucial in understanding the present time (lit., “knowing the season”). Paul was not referring to time in general but to the end-time and to the imminent return of the Lord Jesus. It is a time, therefore, for spiritual vigilance and industriousness: wake up from your (some mss. have “our,” which conforms to the context) slumber (cf. Eph_5:14; 1Pe_5:8). This need for alertness is because our salvation (ultimate or final salvation realized at the return of the Savior; cf. Rom_8:23; Heb_9:28; 1Pe_1:5) is nearer now than when we first believed (cf. Jas_5:8). This isn’t speaking of a chronological time, but time as in a period or era. Each day we live, our salvation comes nearer. The sleep spoken of here is one of spiritual apathy or indifference or unresponsiveness to the things of God. Therefore the salvation here is not speaking of our salvation, but our glorification at the time of our death.
When Jesus returns, we will be glorified and that time draws nearer with each passing day. The bible frequently uses the return of Jesus to motivate believers to holy living.
Ecclesiastes 9:10 "Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do [it] with thy might; for [there is] no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave, whither thou goest."
We see from verses 10 and 11 that in these two Scriptures that, whatever we plan to do for God we better get after it. Salvation is for today, because we are not assured of tomorrow. We are warned in Matthew.
Matthew 24:42 "Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come."
I Corinthians 7:29-31 "But this I say, brethren, the time [is] short: it remaineth, that both they that have wives be as though they had none;" "And they that weep, as though they wept not; and they that rejoice, as though they rejoiced not; and they that buy, as though they possessed not;" "And they that use this world, as not abusing [it]: for the fashion of this world passeth away."
We must awake, because the coming of the Lord is near, and then the judgment.
I Thessalonians 5:1-3 "But of the times and the seasons, brethren, ye have no need that I write unto you." "For yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night." “For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape."
I Thessalonians 5:5-8" Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness." "Therefore let us not sleep, as [do] others; but let us watch and be sober." "For they that sleep sleep in the night; and they that be drunken are drunken in the night." "But let us, who are of the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love; and for an helmet, the hope of salvation."
We can easily see that we must not put off salvation, it might be too late.
Each passing day in the faith brings final salvation and deliverance closer.

Romans 13:12

Paul considered the time of Christ’s return and the consummation of salvation for believers (Rom_13:11) as the start of a new day. The present time, while Christ is absent (Joh_14:2-3; Act_1:11) and Satan is at work (2Co_4:4; Eph_2:2), is described as the night (cf. 2Pe_1:19). Since “the day” is almost here, Paul urged his readers to put aside the deeds of darkness and put on the armor of light. To put on the armor of light means the protection that practical righteousness provides. Paul exhorts believers to repent of and forsake their sins.
In this Scripture and the one above in Thessalonians, we see that Christians are not in darkness, we are children of the Light.
I Thessalonians 5:4-5 "But ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief." “Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness."
Jesus is the Light and if we are full of Him, then we are full of light, as well.
Christians are soldiers in a conflict who need to be alert and equipped for battle (Eph_6:10-17; 1Th_5:8). Upright, Christ-honoring living is often referred to as being in the light (Joh_12:36; Eph_5:8, Eph_5:14; Col_1:12; 1Th_5:5; 1Jn_1:7; 1Jn_2:10).

Romans 13:13-14

In Rom_13:13 Paul repeated his exhortation of Rom_13:12, changing the figure from warfare to lifestyle. He charged, Let us behave decently, as in the daytime (lit., “day”). Crime, violence, and wickedness are associated with darkness and the night (Joh_1:5; Joh_3:19-20; Joh_8:12; Joh_12:35, Joh_12:46; Eph_5:8, Eph_5:11; Eph_6:12; 1Th_5:7; 1Pe_2:9; 1Jn_1:5-6; 1Jn_2:9, 1Jn_2:11). Perhaps this contrast was suggested to Paul by his phrase “deeds of darkness” (Rom_13:12). At any rate the activities and attitudes he listed — orgies and drunkenness… sexual immorality and debauchery… dissension and jealousy (cf. Gal_5:19-21) — are certainly “deeds of darkness.” Walk honestly by living a life pleasing to God, manifesting in our outward behavior, the inner reality of a redeemed life. The carousing refers to wild parties, sexual orgies, brawls, riots, ect.
Wantonness has to do with all sorts of sins of the body. We can see in these Scriptures that, these sins that are going on are the same sins that brought destruction to the earth in Noah's time and also in Lot's time.
Luke 17:27-28 "They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all." "Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot; they did eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded;"
It is interesting that Paul linked jealousy with immorality. Such actions and attitudes have no place in a Christian’s life. He belongs to “the light”; these deeds and thoughts belong to the darkness.
A Christian’s lifestyle must be pure and holy, especially in view of Christ’s approaching return (cf. Rom_13:11-12; 1Jn_3:3). The secret to living chaste lives is for Christians to clothe themselves with the Lord Jesus Christ (cf. “put on,” Eph_4:24; Col_3:10). At salvation they were “clothed with Christ” (Gal_3:27), so they should conduct themselves accordingly. Also the secret includes not thinking about how to gratify the desires of the sinful nature (lit., “and do not make forethought [pronoian] for the flesh [sarkos; cf. Rom_8:3-5, Rom_8:8-9, Rom_8:12-13] for lusts”). Here with this verse we see what summarizes sanctification, the continuing spiritual process in which those who have been saved by faith are transformed into His image and likeness.
The image given here by Paul to us describes the process which is like taking off and putting on clothes which is symbolic of thoughts and behavior.
The phrase “not provision” has the basic meaning of planning ahead or forethought. Most sinful behavior results from wrong ideas and lustful desire we allow to longer in our minds.
Gal. 5:17 “For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.
In all of these lessons, I have explained that we are a spirit that dwells in a body of flesh. The soul of man is either controlled by the desires of the flesh [which is sin], or we are controlled by the spirit which desires to do God's will.
Galatians 3:27 "For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ."
We cannot overcome the flesh ourselves, but the Spirit of Christ within us can overcome the flesh. You see, we have no power of our own. It is the power of Christ that overcomes.
Galatians 2:20 "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me."
If a Christian to plan out specific ways to gratify his sinful nature is wrong and out of bounds.

1 Corinthians Chapter 16

1 Corinthians 16:1

Counsel concerning the collection for the poor
The flow of the previous chapter, from a prolonged discourse on doctrinal matters to a concluding exhortation on practical diligence, moved smoothly to a discussion of a practical expression of that faith — care for the needs of others and in particular, the needy in Jerusalem.
At this appropriate juncture, Paul took up the Corinthian inquiry (cf. 1Co_7:1) concerning a proposed collection for God’s people (cf. 1Co_1:2) in Jerusalem (1Co_15:3). The Corinthians had apparently heard about the collection through members of the Galatian churches, the oldest of all the Pauline-planted churches (Acts 13:14-14:23) in Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, and Pisidian Antioch. Paul’s instruction to them was repeated to the Corinthians. Paul was concerned about the poverty stricken in Jerusalem. It seemed they had somewhat of an obligation to Jerusalem, since the beginning of the church was there.
The “Collection for the saints” is an offering for destitute believers in the over populated famine stricken city of Jerusalem. Paul had previously solicited funds from the churches of Galatia, Macedonia, and Achaia.
1 Corinthians 16:2

Paul never used the word “tithe” when he discussed giving, even though he gave more attention to giving than any other New Testament writer. Giving should be a systematic, weekly practice on Sunday when the church meets together. Giving was also to be proportionate — in keeping with one’s income (cf. Act_11:29). The income of some would permit them to give a greater proportion, while others, due to their few resources and other constraints on them, would be limited to lesser contributions. What was important was that giving be a unified ministry with each one participating, regardless of his income. Then when it came time to deliver the contributions to the saints in Jerusalem, no last-minute collections would need to be made, and the gift could be sent off gladly, not grudgingly (2Co_9:5) — as would be true if it were wrung out by emotional appeals or personal pressure. The church of the Lord Jesus Christ met on the first day of the week. The Christians practice first fruits. This is just saying take up a collection when you meet and have it ready. Each person should give according to what they can afford to give.
This evidences that the early church met on Sunday (Acts 20:7). The point is that giving must occur regularly, not just when one feels generous, particularly led to do so, or instructed to do so for some special purpose.
“As he may prosper”: No required amount or percentage for giving to the Lord’s work is specified in the New Testament. All giving to the Lord is to be free will giving and completely discretionary (see Luke 6:38; 2 Cor. 9:6-8).
This is not to be confused with the Old Testament required giving of 3 tithes which totaled about 23 percent annually to fund the national government of Israel, take care of public festivals, and provide welfare. Modern parallels to the Old Testament tithe are found in the taxation system of countries. Old Testament giving to God was not regulated as to amount.
1 Corinthians 16:3-4

Paul’s practice in money matters was scrupulously aboveboard. Not only did he avoid solicitation for himself (cf. 1Co_9:12, 1Co_9:15), but also when he acted to meet the needs of others he avoided direct involvement in handling the gift. He preferred instead that individuals from the various contributing congregations elect representatives to bear their gift (cf. 2Co_8:19-21) whom he might then accompany to the presentation. Paul did not want to handle the money himself, so he asked that they choose some honorable member, who would go and take the offering to the poor in Jerusalem. Paul is praising them for their help, in the word "liberality". Paul had really not planned to go with them. He said it did not matter if he were going; he still wanted someone else to carry the offering. He would let the chosen person travel with him, but he definitely did not want to carry the offering himself.
1 Corinthians 16:5

Counsel concerning future visits
The mention of his planned arrival in connection with the collection sparked another brief digression on the subject of future visits.
It was Paul’s plan to leave Ephesus, his place of ministry at that time (1Co_16:8), and journey through Macedonia, the region north of Corinth where the churches of Philippi, Thessalonica, and presumably Berea (cf. Act_20:4, a delegate from Berea accompanied Paul) flourished. They too were planning to make a contribution to the needy in Jerusalem (cf. 2Co_8:1-4). Paul tried to go back to the churches he had started to check and see how they were doing. Paul really wanted to wait a short time to let them get the problems in their church taken care of before he came. He loved these people and would come as soon as he was in their vicinity.
At the end of a 3 year stay in Ephesus, Paul wrote his letter and probably gave it to Timothy to deliver, v.10. Paul originally planned to follow Timothy a short while after, visiting Corinth on the way to and from Macedonia. He had to change his plan and visit only after a longer stay in Ephesus, then on to Corinth after Macedonia, to stay for a while.
1 Corinthians 16:6-7

On that journey (cf. Act_19:21) Paul hoped to be able to spend some time with the Corinthians, possibly as long as the winter since travel by sea in that season was ill-advised (cf. Act_27:9-44). Paul did come and stay with them for a while. They loved Paul and many of them would probably travel with him as he left. This would show how badly they felt about his leaving. This, in fact, he eventually did but not on the schedule here set forth. This change of plans became a source of trouble for him with the Corinthians later (cf. 2 Cor. 1:15-2:1). What Paul meant by the words you can help me on my journey is clarified later (1Co_16:11). He desired that his departure be marked by “peace,” which would be in keeping with the Lord’s will (cf. Jas_4:15). Notice that Paul says, “if the Lord permit”. He went where the Lord sent him. He stayed until the Lord said it is time to move on. Paul wanted to stay in Corinth for a while, but would be subject to the wishes of God.
1 Corinthians 16:8-9

For the time being, Paul intended to stay on at Ephesus in ministry, where the opportunities and the opposition were both great. Paul had spent a great deal of time at Ephesus. This could have been the trip when Paul had trouble with the silversmiths. Pentecost meant a great deal to the Christians, as well as the Jews. At Pentecost was when the Holy Spirit fell on 120, and they were all baptized in the Holy Ghost. One or the other of these situations may have arisen while he was writing this letter (cf. 1Co_4:19). It says something about Paul’s perception of his ministry that the presence of opposition was a sign to him of the viability of his labor and reason for pressing on, not running away (cf. Act_19:30-31). Paul was travelling from place to place and establishing churches along the way. He faced much opposition from the Jews during these trips. He was not only fighting all types of idol worship, but his greatest opposition was from the Jewish leaders themselves. The opportunities were great, but the "adversaries" {enemies} were many, as well.
Many adversaries: The apostle seems to have in mind his pending trip through Macedonia and is accounting for why he is staying a little longer in Ephesus.
Perhaps no New Testament church had such fierce opposition as the one in Ephesus (See 2 Cor. 1:8-10 where he described his experience in Ephesus, Acts 19:1-21) In spite of that opposition, the door for the gospel was open wide (2 Cor. 2:12-13 where Paul also had an open door, but no heart to remain and preach) and Paul stayed. At the end of the experience of opposition described in 2. Cor. 1:8-10, he wrote 1 Corinthians.
Those who opposed him in Corinth (1Co_4:18-21) probably took note of this.
1 Corinthians 16:10-11

In the meantime Paul intended to send his beloved assistant Timothy to Corinth. The younger man sometimes traveled in Paul’s place (cf. Php_2:19-24). That Timothy might have cause to fear while ministering in Corinth confirms, as this letter indicates, that working with the Corinthian church was no picnic. Timothy had been trained in the ways of the Lord by his mother and his grandmother, but a great deal of his ministry training had been from Paul. Paul thought of Timothy as his son in the spirit. When Timothy ministered, it was as if Paul were ministering. Timothy was an extension of the teachings of Paul. Paul is saying, it was the next best thing to him being with them himself.
Paul had sent him with Erastus to Macedonia, Acts 19:22 and then he was to travel to Corinth, perhaps to carry this epistle. “Without fear”: i.e. intimidation or frustration by believers in Corinth.
However, it probably says more about the character of Timothy, a man devoted to Christ (Php_2:19-21) but lacking Paul’s robust boldness (cf. 1Ti_4:12; 2Ti_1:7-8; 2Ti_2:1). This is just Paul giving the highest recommendation to Timothy to those in Corinth. Paul tells them not to hate him. Perhaps, Paul was afraid they would be jealous, because he thought so much of Timothy.
The identity of the brothers accompanying Timothy is not clear. It appears that Timothy went out from Ephesus with Erastus (Act_19:22). They may have been joined by some of the men who later composed Paul’s traveling party for delivering the collection (Act_20:4).

1 Corinthians 16:12

The last of the Corinthian questions (cf. 1Co_7:10) concerned Apollos. They apparently inquired about the possibility of a return visit from him. Paul said he had strongly urged Apollos to do this but that the gifted Alexandrian had decided to stay on in Ephesus with Paul, and not join Timothy and Erastus in their trip (Act_19:22). We must remember, again, that they had written a letter to Paul, and this is an answer to that letter. These Christians here at Corinth had probably asked in the letter for Apollos to come and minister to them. He was, possibly, one of their favorite ministers. It, also, seems that he was ministering somewhere else at the time and could not come.
Paul felt Apollos should accompany the other brothers, Timothy and Erastus, to Corinth. Apollos refused, staying in Ephesus longer. Paul respected his convictions.
 Earlier in the letter, Paul had described himself and Apollos as fellow workers under God (1Co_3:9). This verse bears eloquent tribute to the fact that Paul conducted himself not as a master but as a partner with others who labored in ministry. 

1 Corinthians 16:13-14

Paul gives 5 final commands. The Corinthian are to be alert, firm, mature, strong and loving.

Exhortation on appropriate conduct and commendation
Paul began the conclusion with a pointed exhortation along a fivefold line. The command, Be on your guard (grēgoreite) might be rendered “be diligent” in carrying out the will of God (cf. 1Co_15:58, “give yourselves fully to the work of the Lord”). In view of the Corinthians’ susceptibility to false teachers (cf. 2Co_11:3) the exhortation to stand firm in the faith was a timely reminder (cf. 1Co_15:1, 1Co_15:58). So too were the closing exhortations (similar to the Gr. text of several Pss., e.g., Psa_27:14; Psa_31:24) to be men of courage and be strong, that is, marked by maturity (cf. 1Co_14:20) and not infants easily swept aside (cf. Eph_4:14). This is a subject that we should dwell on quite a lot. It is just as important to remain in the salvation you have received as it is to be saved in the first place. To "stand fast", means not to be blown by every wind of doctrine. Be strong as men.
“The faith”: The Christian faith, i.e., sound doctrine as in Phil. 1:27, 1 Tim. 6:12; Jude 3.
 That sort of diligence and commitment is required if everything is to be done in love (cf. 1 Cor. 12:31b-14:1). "Charity", here, is speaking of love. Paul is trying to teach them that Christianity is a relationship with the Lord in your heart. He is explaining to do things, because you love and not because of necessity.

1 Corinthians 16:15-16

Achaia was the Roman province extending over central and southern Greece of which Corinth was the capital. Those in the household of Stephanas were among the first converts in the region (cf. Act_17:34, for some in Athens believed), and they were among those who assumed responsibility for the general welfare of the church. Paul is reminding them here that these were some of the very first Christians. They, also, had totally dedicated themselves to the work of the Lord. Paul, possibly, was saying, even though they wrote me of these problems in the church, you must not have hard feelings about them. These things needed to be settled once for all.
The members of the household of Stephanas were among the first converts in Corinth, which is located in Achaia, the southern province of Greece. Stephanas was one of the Corinthians believers Paul baptized personally, and was visiting with Paul in Ephesus at the time this epistle was written. With Fortunatus and Achaicus, he probably delivered the earlier letter from Corinth mentioned in 7:1.
Sometimes Paul appointed elders (Act_14:23) but in this instance members of Stephanas’ household voluntarily took on the responsibility (cf. 1Ti_3:1). Paul recognized their position as ordained by God and urged others to submit to them. Paul is explaining that the new converts should listen to those who had been in the work longer and who had dedicated their lives to the work of the Lord. One primary qualification for church leadership was a willingness to serve (cf. Mat_23:11; Luk_22:26). To those who labored with this spirit, submission on the part of others in the church was due.

1 Corinthians 16:17-18

By their very presence, three men from the Corinthian church — Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus — were able to refresh and encourage Paul despite the fact that they probably also brought confirmation of the bad news earlier reported by Chloe’s people (1Co_1:11). These men were the probable bearers of the letter to which Paul had responded to. These were people who had come to minister to them in the things they were weak in. They had filled in the gaps in your spiritual learning.
Paul was glad about the arrival of his 3 friends in Ephesus who went there to be with him. The Corinthian were to give those men respect or their service to the Lord. One really great thing that happens when a group of old seasoned ministers get together, is that we refresh each other's spirit. There is no room for jealousy in the ministry. Meet with other ministers, and share what God has shown you, and all will benefit by it.
1 Corinthians 16:19

Salutation, imprecation, and benediction
The churches… of Asia, perhaps those indicated in Revelation 2-3, joined with Paul in sending greetings to their sister church in Corinth (cf. 1Co_1:2). Aquila and Priscilla were tentmakers whom Paul met in Corinth and with whom he lived. They had followed Paul to Ephesus and remained there in ministry, making their house available as a meeting place (cf. Rom_16:3-5). We remember that Priscilla and Aquila were a husband and wife that Paul had lived with. In fact, Paul had been a tent maker with them to make a living. They were both teachers of the Word of God and they, also, opened their home as a church. They were all three responsible for founding the church in Corinth and in Ephesus.
The following Scripture shows that both of them taught. Acts 18:26 "And he began to speak boldly in the synagogue: whom when Aquila and Priscilla had heard, they took him unto [them], and expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly."
They had become good friends with Paul, since he stayed in their house during his first ministry in Corinth, Acts 18:1-3. He may have stayed with them the entire year and a half.
“In their house”: The early church used homes of believers for worship and many other activities.
They would, of course, know and be known by many in the Corinthian church.
1 Corinthians 16:20

All the brothers may refer to those from the Corinthian church in Ephesus at the time of writing (1Co_1:11; 1Co_16:17), or to believers in Ephesus who met in a house(s) other than that of Aquila and Priscilla, or simply to the collective community of Christians in the province of Asia.
The holy kiss (cf. 2Co_13:12; Rom_16:16; 1Th_5:25; 1Pe_5:14) was primarily a symbolic expression of the love, forgiveness, and unity which should exist among Christians. As such, it became associated with the celebration of the Lord’s Supper as a prelude to its observance. It was a mark of the familial bond which united believers. It was not unusual in these days for a man to kiss another man in greeting. He did not kiss him on the lips, but on the cheek. Notice the type of this kiss {holy}. Paul is saying; do not be distant to your brothers in Christ. Show that you care for each other.
This was a pure expression of Christian love between men with men and women with women, with no sexual overtones.
There is no indication that it was restricted to one’s own sex in the New Testament era (cf. Luk_7:37, Luk_7:45). The suggestion to separate the sexes for the exchange of the kiss arose in the late second century due to concern about criticism from non-Christians and the danger of erotic abuse. By the third century it seems that the sexes were separated, and by the fourth century the clergy and laity were also kept apart. Such, however, was apparently not the case in the New Testament church where love for one another was openly expressed.
1 Corinthians 16:21

At this point Paul stopped dictating the letter (cf. Rom_16:22; Gal_6:11) and wrote the final words himself. Paul is just saying that this is not second-hand information, but from him personally. He greets them personally.
Paul dictated the main part of the letter to a scribe, but finished and signed it himself.
1 Corinthians 16:22

Paul’s personal note began with a passionate warning probably aimed at false teachers (cf. 1Co_12:3) whom he believed to be already present in the congregation (cf. 2Co_11:3-4). The verb love (philei) is related to the noun philēmati for “kiss” (1Co_16:20). It expresses adoration and devotion, qualities absent in false brethren. Paul invoked God’s wrath on these false teachers (cf. Gal_1:8-9) and in the same breath appealed to Christ to return (cf. Mat_7:21-23; Rev_22:20). "Anathema" seems to mean excommunicated. Love of the Lord and the Lord's people is really the essence of Christianity. To not love the Lord would mean that you had rejected the Lord. You would just automatically cut yourself off, if you did not love the Lord. Of course, I think that is terribly important.  Come, O Lord! Renders the Greek words marana tha (“Maranatha”), which transliterate the Aramaic “Lord, come.”
1 Corinthians 16:23-24

To the congregation of Christians in Corinth, Paul invoked what they sorely needed, the continued grace of the Lord Jesus (cf. 1Co_1:4). This statement is a trademark of Paul. This is like speaking a benediction on them. It is actually a prayer of Paul's for them to continue in the unmerited favor of the Lord. He assured them of what they hardly deserved, his fervent though unrequited (cf. 2Co_6:11-13; 2Co_12:15) love (agapē) He embraced the disunited lot of them (cf. 1Co_1:10) as their spiritual father in Christ Jesus (1Co_4:15). Paul is just saying I love you, you are my spiritual children. Paul knows the only way to truly love people is to allow the Lord to love them through you. Amen, just means, so be it.
The first epistle to the Corinthians was written from Philippi by Stephanas and Fortunatus and Achaicus and Timotheus as dictated by the Apostle Paul.